All posts by fodderfarm

Common Linden or Common Lime 

Tilia × europaea

The Common Linden or Lime is a large, broad, cold hardy deciduous tree, able to reach heights of 35m or more. With its deep spreading root system, it is a robust plant well suited to shelterbelts and hedgerows, as it with stands wind well and tolerates regular cutting. A naturally occurring hybrid between Tilia cordata  (small-leaved lime) and Tilia platyphyllos  (large-leaved lime), it is the result of cross pollination between the two parent species in the wild. While the Linden prefers well-drained moist soil, it can grow in nutritionally poor and/or wet soils. It will also grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade and can tolerate strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Its heart shaped leaves are edible when young, often used raw in salads and sandwiches, they are mild and mucilaginous.  The plants can be kept shrubby through coppicing or pollarding to allow for easier leaf harvesting. Young leaves are produced throughout the growing season on coppiced plants making the Common Linden a handy perennial  vegetable. This also allows for harvesting of fodder for livestock or controlled foraging. The foliage is much relished by cattle, both green and dried and made into hay, however it can apparently taint the milk of lactating cows. The leaves are high in nitrogen and phosphorus, similar to those of nitrogen-fixing trees like alders and black locust. They can improve soil structure and fertility over time, acting like a green manure, and increase the earthworm population; they also thought to reduce acidification, raising the pH.


The highly fragrant yellow-white flowers, occurring in late spring to early summer, are well liked by the bees and have long been used for medicinal purposes. Lime-flower tea has been used for many centuries as an antidote to fever in cold and flu sufferers. It is often used in herbal medicine for hypertension, hardening of the arteries, cardiovascular and digestive complaints associated with anxiety, urinary infections, fevers, catarrh, migraine and headaches. The flowers are also used commercially in cosmetics, mouthwashes and bath lotions. They should be picked and dried as soon as they open as they reputedly develop narcotic properties with age.

The immature fruits can be ground up with some flowers to, apparently, produce an edible paste much like chocolate in flavour. The sap is also considered edible, it is tapped and used in the same way as maples. While the tree is prone to suckering, these suckers are straight and flexible, and can be used for basketry (particularly for making handles).

Acacia – Wattles

Of the over 700 species of Acacia native to Australia only a small number were introduced to New Zealand in the mid 1800’s.  Fodder Farm have three of the more common Acacia, the Australian Blackwood, Silver Wattle and Black Wattle available for sale. These trees are great multi-purpose additions to your landscape if used appropriately as they do have a reputation of being invasive. When used as a support species within a managed planting they can be contained and their nitrogen fixing properties will assist in feeding the surrounding plants. Managed plantings can consist of mixed shelterbelts, hedgerows or agroforesty (tree plantation which is grazed). By utilizing their forage-ability livestock can remove any suckers or seedlings to prevent further spread. As acacia are fast growing and soil-improving they are a natural pioneer species, often providing a relatively short-term land coverage after fires or other damage to existing coverage eg, Landworks, roading etc.

blackwood flower
Blackwood Flower

In a food forest situation, Acacia are used to provide shelter and nutrition to the heavy feeding food crops. Their ability to be coppiced or heavily pruned means height/size can be managed and the chop and drop method can be used to provide mulch and keep the nutrients in situ. Over winter the fluffy small white or yellow flowers of the evergreen Acacia’s are also useful bee fodder at a time when not much is available.

The edible flowers of the Silver Wattle and Blackwood are used to make fritters etc. While the gum of the Silver and Black Wattle is also considered edible and the seeds of the Black Wattle.  Other uses are erosion control, firewood and timber, the Blackwood has beautiful timber and a high tannin content. While all three are hardy the Black Wattle and Blackwood may be susceptible to heavier frost when young. The Silver Wattle is more suited to dryer sites, while the Blackwood likes good rainfall and will tolerate wet sites. The Black Wattle is good for clay or poor soils which need improving.

black wattle seed pods
Black Wattle seed pods

Silver wattle – Acacia dealbata

Fast growing and hardy, this evergreen shelter tree reaches 20m. Good for timber & fuelwood. Excellent for dry plains sites and Nitrogen fixing. Bright yellow flowers are great for bees.

Nitrogen Fixing, Shelter, Erosion, Control, Birds/Bees, Timber, Fuelwood, Coppicing, Fodder.

Australian Blackwood – Acacia melanoxylon

A fast-growing and evergreen spreading tree reaching 20m.  Prefers sheltered sites with good rainfall and tolerates wet soil. It is great for erosion protection with a suckering habit. Pale yellow flowers in late winter are good fodder for bees. Handles only light frosts when young.

Nitrogen fixing, Shelter, Erosion Control, Birds/Bees, Timber, Fuelwood,

Coppicing, Fodder.

Black Wattle – Acacia mearnsii

Provides fast evergreen shelter up to 12m. Will grow in clays and poor soils, it is non-suckering and nitrogen fixing. Suitable nurse crop for other species, like food forests or natives. Handles light frosts only. Excellent firewood tree.

Nitrogen Fixing, Shelter, Erosion Control, Birds/Bees, Timber, Fuelwood, Coppicing.

silver wattle
Silver Wattle Flower


Morus nigra – Black Mulberry

Morus alba, – White Mulberry

The Mulberry is a deciduous tree reaching up to 10m, but they can be coppiced or pollarded, every 1 – 4 years, to control size and provide leaf fodder for livestock. The Black Mulberry is considered to have the better fruit, while the White Mulberry is grown for its leaf value (silk worms are grown on the White). They are rapid growers while young but this slows as they age and they are also considered long lived trees. Because the trees are deep rooting they bring up nutrients from the ground and can be grown with crops surrounding them as they don’t compete. The leaves also contain high protein levels for a plant, making them highly nutritious for livestock, including rabbits. While the berries are an excellent chook forage.

The purple-black berries of the Black Mulberry, are produced early summer and are considered delicious, though it recommended that you do not plant near concrete as they stain. These berries can be eaten fresh or used in jams, cordials and winemaking. Young leaves are eaten cooked in many countries. The fruit, bark and leaves, of both species, are also medicinal with many uses, including the treatment of colds, flu, eye infections and toothache. The bark is considered anthelmintic and purgative, it is used to expel tape worms, this could be highly beneficial if feeding branch trimmings to  livestock. Fiber can also be made from the bark, dye from the fruit and leaves, and the wood can be used for joinery.

It is also said that if planted next to Walnuts, Mulberries can buffer the negative effects of the Walnut roots on other plants. Underplanting with nitrogen fixing plants will help support the Mulberries growth.  Well drained soil is preferred, Mulberries are fairly drought-hardy once established but prefer water during fruiting. They are low maintenance, frost hardy and self-fertile. An excellent choice for a multi-purpose hedgerow, specimen tree, etc.


Jerusalem Artichoke 

Helianthus tuberosus – SunChoke

An erect, rhizomatous herbaceous perennial herb, which grows up to about 3 m high. Mainly grown for its edible tuber for both people and livestock, the Jerusalem Artichoke is a high yielder with each tuber capable of producing 75 – 200 tubers a year in good soil. It also produces stalks and leaves which are highly palatable to livestock and should be fed or foraged prior to the small sunflower like flowers developing as the stems become woody. These stalks are often used as compost carbon, but the plant can deplete soils so it is best grown with mineral accumulators or fed yearly. The stalks and leaves can be harvested for fodder throughout the growing season but this drastically lowers the production of tubers. While the plants are hardy in most environments they are considered frost tender, though the tubers will survive and grow back. Jerusalem Artichokes have also been used as a pioneer species on damaged ground.

Uses: Edible tuber, Fodder/forage, Bee plant, Compost Carbon, Summer Shelter.


Corylus avellana

The Hazel is deciduous and can be grown either as a multi-stemmed bush or a single trunk small tree. They are hardy and fast growing, reaching 3–8m tall, but can reach as high as 15m. The flowers (single sex catkins) are produced very early in spring before the leaves, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, and the female ones are very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1-to-3mm long stigmas visible. Pollination is done by the wind and pollinator Hazels are necessary for this to be successful.

The edible nuts are 1–2.5 cm long and 1–2 cm diameter, surrounded by a husk which can partially or fully enclose the nut. Ripening from February to April, depending on the variety, Hazels are ready when they fall from the tree. Harvesting can spread over three to four weeks per tree, keeping the ground clear during this time can help with ease of picking the nuts up. Once harvested nuts must be dried and stored in a cool dark place.

Hazel leaves and small branches can also be used as stock fodder/forage, the nuts as pigs or bird fodder and the flowers provide an early pollen source for bees. The Hazel stems are also used for basketry, woven fencing (hurdles), walking sticks, garden stakes, furniture and the frames of coracle boats. The tree can be coppiced, and regenerating shoots can be harvested every few years. However, if nuts are wanted the pruning should be kept light as they bear on strong one-year old wood. Remove any inward growing branches and crossing branches to allow light and openness in the center of the tree/shrub. The Hazel grows best in sheltered areas with fertile soil and consistent moisture levels. They can tolerate frosts but persistent harsh winds will slow their growth.

These are some cultivars  which are readily available.

Hazel – Appleby

Low vigour, spreading tree form, moderate suckering, with good yields. Needs pollinator possibly Campanica, Butler, Davianna and Merveille de Bollwiller could be used.  Good flavour.

Hazel – Merveille de bollwiller 

A large attractive nut.  Highly sought-after pollinator.  Vigorous grower.  Pollinate with ‘Alexandra’.  Hardy.  Late cropper, ripens April.

Hazel – Whiteheart 

Good yields of medium-sized nuts with a clean kernel and excellent flavour. Best hazelnut for processing. Pollinators include ‘Alexandra’ and ‘Merveille de Bollwiller’. Ripens April.