Fodder Farm Edible Plant List

Mulberry – Morus alba

Tree 10 -15 m can be coppiced. Produces edible berries in Autumn, good chook fodder, and high-quality leaf fodder for other grazing species. Deciduous.  Hardy. Self-Fertile.

Fodder, Fruit/Berry, Coppicing, Hedgerow.

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Mulberry – Morus nigra

Tree 5 – 8 m can be coppiced. Produces edible berries in Autumn, good chook fodder, and high-quality leaf fodder for other grazing species. Deciduous.  Hardy. Self-Fertile

Fodder, Fruit/Berry, Coppicing, Hedgerow.

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Linden – Tilia europea

Large tree reaching 35 m but can be coppiced. Multi use tree, fodder, edible leaves and flowers, wood used for posts, poles, firewood, carving etc. Deciduous, Hardy.

Fodder, Edible leaves, hedging, Birds/Bees.

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Apple rose – Rosa rugosa

Forms dense thickets 1–1.50 m tall.  Bears fragrant single flowers followed by large rose hips high in Vit C. Edible flowers, hips and leaves. Hardy.

Hedging, Barrier, Birds/bees, Fodder, Edible, Medicinal, Hedgerow.

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Hazel – Appleby

Low vigour, spreading tree form, moderate suckering, with good yields. Needs pollinator possibly Campanica, Butler, Davianna and Merveille de Bollwiller could be used.  Good flavour.

Hazel – Merveille de bollwiller

A large attractive nut.  Highly sought-after pollinator.  Vigorous grower.  Pollinate with ‘Alexandra’.  Hardy.  Late cropper, ripens April.

Hazel – Whiteheart

Good yields of medium-sized nuts with a clean kernel and excellent flavour. Best hazelnut for processing. Pollinators include ‘Alexandra’ and ‘Merveille de Bollwiller’. Ripens April.

Hazels are fast growing plant reaching 3–8 m tall, but can reach 15 m. Suitable for nut production and as a coppice for basket and fence making. This shrub or small tree grows best in sheltered areas with fertile soil and consistent moisture levels. Requires cross-pollination in order to produce nuts. Looks great as an edible hedge. Deciduous. Hardy.

Fodder, Shelter, Hedging, Erosion Control, Timber, Nut, Coppicing, Hedgerow.

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Feijoa – Acca sellowiana

Small tree up to 7m.  The fruit, maturing in autumn and the flower petals are edible often used in salads, good hedging/low shelter plant.  Leaves are edible for livestock. Evergreen, Hardy.

Fodder, Hedging, Birds/Bees, Orchard/Fruit, Hedgerow.

 

Walnut – Juglans regia

Fast growing tree reaching 15m. Seedling trees produce sweet, edible nuts. There will be natural variation between trees. Timber is valued for furniture. Deciduous. Hardy

Fodder(nut), Timber, Nut, Coppice.

 

Chestnut – sweet –  Castanea sativa

Wide-spreading tree reaching 20m with edible nuts in autumn. Valuable timber. Deciduous. Hardy to frost.

Tall Shelter, Ground Durable, Fodder (nut and leaves), Birds/Bees, Timber, Orchard/Fruit, Coppice.

 

Sugar Maple– Acer saccharum.

Large tree to 15m. Needs fertile soils and long, cold, moist winters. Spring sap can be processed into maple syrup. Durable, close-grained wood. Wilted leaves are toxic to horses. Deciduous. Cold hardy.

Fodder, Timber, Sap.

 

Camellia sinensis

Leaves used for tea, green or black.  Plants prefer a rich and moist growing location in full to part sun, Needs regular watering and good drainage. Frost tender but will tolerate brief frosts though it does require protection from frosts while young.

 

Chinese haw – Crataegus pinnatifida

Broadly spreading, deciduous large shrub/small tree 3-6m tall. Thorns not numerous. Leaves glossy and yellow in the autumn. Grown widely in China for its edible red fruits and medicinal properties.
Cherry plum – Prunus cerasifera

A small tree, broadly spreading, deciduous growing to 4-6m tall.  Early white blossoms before the leaves, fruits juicy, sweet, red or yellow. Used as an understock for plum, some can have thorns. Eaten by kereru.

 

 

Wild/Mazzard cherry – Prunus avium

Broadly conical, deciduous tree reaching 20-25m. Masses of white blossoms in spring. Sweet edible cherries in January. Red autumn coloured leaves. Timber has a decorative grain and is prized for cabinet work and turnery.

 

Elderberry – Sambucus nigra

Large shrub/small tree.  Bears large clusters of small edible white or cream-colored flowers in late spring; these are followed by clusters of small black edible berries. Hardy

 

Grape – Vitis vinifera

A vigorous and climbing woody vine that can reach a height of 15-20 m in the wild. In cultivated vines development is dramatically reduced through yearly pruning of shoots and leaves. While usually grown for its fruit, grape leaves and shoots are used as fodder/forage in many Mediterranean countries.

Fruit. Fodder/Forage, Shade, Birds/Bees.

 

Black currant – Ribes nigrum

Shrub, 1.5m, acid moist soil, sun/semi shade, fruits on new wood, Dec- Jan. Cold hardy.

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Red currant – Gloria de Versailles – Ribes rubrum

Shrub up to 2m, mulch to keep roots cool, Fruits on older wood, large red berries, vigorous, Dec – Jan.

Red currant – Mangatoki  – Ribes rubrum

Shrub up to 2m, mulch to keep roots cool, Vigorous, prolific, small berries, December.

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Raspberry  – Rubus idaeus 

Spreading cane plant. Edible berries, leaves are medicinal, Prefers well fed mulched soil, water well though dry periods. Cold hardy.

 

Raspberry – black  – Rubus sp 

Cane plant. Edible berries. Vigorous plant with no thorns. Needs support.

 

Blackberry – Thornless – Rubus trivialis

A bramble bush with long, thorn-less, arching shoots which root easily.  Long, arching canes that do not flower or set fruit until the second year of growth.

 

Gooseberry – Ribes grossularia

Small thorny shrub 1m+, prefers partial shade, cool area with regular moisture. Edible berry, Nov- Jan. Cold hardy

 

Worcester Berry – Ribes Divaricatum

A scrubby, thorny, deciduous shrub reaching approximately 2 m high. Also known as coastal black gooseberry it has dark red/black gooseberry-like fruit for eating fresh, making wine or cooking. An excellent cropper, it prefers well drained, moist soil in sun or semi-shade and is frost hardy.   The Worcester berry shrub can be trained to cordons,  standards or used as hedging

 

NZ Cranberry – Ugni molinae (Mrytus ugni)

Small shrub which can be used as a low edible hedge. It has edible red berries in Autumn with a flavour similar to candy floss when fully ripe, March – April. Full sun to semi-shade, Cold hardy.  Also known as Chilean Guava.

 

 

Blueberry – Northern Highbush –  Vaccinium spp. 

Prefer cooler southern NZ districts, earliest to ripen – mid Nov to Feb, upright, deciduous, self-pollinator although larger berries when planted with other Highbush varieties up to 6m.

Atlantic N.Highbush

Mid-season, heavy producer, medium sized firm aromatic fruit, spreading habit.

Burlington N.Highbush

Late small-medium light blue fruit.

Dixi N.Highbush

Vigorous spreading, late, large aromatic fruit.

 

Strawberry – Fragaria hybrids

Low growing plant, spreads by runners, full sun, good drainage, mulch to keep berries off the ground.

 

Wild Strawberry. – Alpine Strawberry – red – Fragaria vesca 

Small leaf strawberry which creates ground cover under trees. Small red, soft, tasty berries.

 

Wild Strawberry. – Alpine Strawberry – White – Fragaria vesca 

Small leaf strawberry which creates ground cover under trees. Small white, soft, tasty berries.

 

Orangeberry – Rubus pentalobus

Good groundcover but a reluctant fruiter. Will grow in shade but flowers best in full sun, Frost tolerant. To encourage fruiting: do not feed, apply potash, do not prune, and restrict roots.

 

Perennial Vegetables

 

Globe artichoke – Green Globe Improved

An improved Artichoke strain suitable for the home garden. The mature flower buds are globe-shaped and have an attractive rich deep green colour without the purple tinge. Sharp spines are almost totally eliminated on both the leaves and buds, making it much easier to harvest. The fleshy base of the petals and the meaty heart are the most edible parts. Buds are usually cut when 6-10cm in diameter. Vigorous and prolific plants grow up to a height of 1.8m and will produce the first year from seed but are usually better when cut back and carried over to the second year. Matures second season from transplant.*

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Jerusalem artichoke – Helianthus tuberosus

An erect, rhizomatous perennial herb, up to about 3 m high. Mainly grown for its edible tuber for both people and livestock, it also produces stalks and leaves which are highly palatable to livestock and small sunflower like flowers. It is best fed to livestock prior to flowers developing. Stalks are often used as compost carbon, but the plant can deplete soils so best grown with mineral accumulators or fed yearly. Plants are frost tender but tubers will survive and grow back.

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Asparagus – Mary Washington

Early Asparagus producing thick dark green spears with sweet and succulent purple tips and showing good resistance to rust, crown rot and fusarium. Asparagus prefers deep well drained soil with added sand or fine stones under crowns with annual side dressing of rich mulch. Matures second/third season from transplant.*

 

Asparagus – Sweet Purple

Highly productive and healthy Purple Asparagus. Sweet taste, less fibre, greater spear diameter and better conformation are some of Sweet Purple’s many attributes. Allow the “ferns” that grow to feed the roots, don’t cut them until they die back naturally in autumn. The crowns should stand a moderate cut the second year with full production by Year 3. The secret to healthy crowns that last up to 15 years is excellent drainage, a sunny position, and lots of mulch. Matures second/third season from transplant.*

 

Earth Gem –  Ullucus tuberosus

A trailing ground vine from South America, which produces small roundish yellow and pink tubers. The tuber is the primary edible part, but the leaf is also used and is similar to spinach. They are known to contain high levels of protein, calcium, and carotene. Because of its high water content, Earth Gems Or Ulluco is not suitable for frying or baking, but it can be cooked in many other ways like the potato.

Herbs and Medicinal

 

Laurus nobilis– Bay tree

Shrub reaching 8m, leaves are used as an edible herb. Suitable for topiary or hedging. Fine on coastal sites. Evergreen. Frost tender when young.

Low Hedging, Birds/Bees, Shade Tolerant, Non-toxic to livestock.

 

Lavandula angustifolia – English lavender

Shrubby perennial with fragrant purple flower spikes. Used for edible flowers and essential oil.  Bee plant.

 

Lavandula x intermedia var. Grosso – Lavender

Hardy small shrub/perennial. Flowers are used for essential oil and are also edible. Bee plant.

 

Rosmarinus officinalis – Rosemary

Woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, Leaves, stems and flowers are used in cooking and for their scent.

 

Leptospermum scoparium – Manuka

Fast growing tree reaching 4m. Major bee plant for high value Manuka honey. Nurse plant for native revegetation. Thrives on moist sites, even tolerant of some wet. Susceptible to scale, sooty mould although this provides a food source for birds. Requires full sun. Evergreen. Avoid heavy frosts.

Wood was often used for tool handles. Mānuka sawdust is used for smoking meats and fish. Manuka essential oil is produced by steam distillation of its leaves. A decoction of the leaves was drunk for urinary complaints and as a febrifuge (an agent for reducing fever). The steam from leaves boiled in water was inhaled for head colds. A decoction was prepared from the leaves and bark and the warm liquid was rubbed on stiff muscles and aching joints. The emollient white gum, called pai Manuka, was given to nursing babies and also used to treat scalds and burns. Chewing the bark is said to have a relaxing effect and it enhances sleep. Kakariki parakeets (Cyanoramphus) use the leaves and bark of mānuka and kānuka to rid themselves of parasites.

 

Alexanders

An ancient herb also known as Wild Celery, Black Lovage and Horse Parsley (horses love it). Traditionally it was found in most medieval gardens and is naturalised around coastal England. The entire plant can be eaten including the leaves, stems and roots with a taste somewhere between celery and parsley. Resembling an angelica, it can grow to 1.5 meters tall. *

 

Basil

Mammoth Leaf. A large leaf variety of the excellent standard Genovese Basil strain. Not just a novelty but could be of distinct advantage where growing space is at a premium and a large quantity of fresh Basil foliage may be required.*

 

Bergamot

Wonderful summer bee plant in the flower garden. Eye-catching bright lavender blooms that are edible with a spicy scent and mild sweet flavour. Medicinally, the leaves and blooms contain antibiotic and antiseptic compounds which can be infused as a tea to soothe sore throats and ease cold symptoms. Easy to grow. *

 

Borage

Starflower. A popular culinary herb in the Middle Ages, it is now grown mostly for its bright blue, edible flowers that have a cucumber like flavour and as an excellent bee plant.  Young leaves can be chopped and added to summer salads, or cooked like spinach.  The flowers may be used as a garnish or floated in summer drinks. Borage contains a substance called gamma linolenic acid (GLA) that studies have shown can kill some cancer cells and inhibit the growth of malignant tumours by restricting blood vessel growth. * Mineral accumulator.

 

Chamomile – German

An upright annual, not a ground cover, like the Roman variety Chamaemelum nobile. Chamomile tea made from the flowers of this variety is very popular in Europe as an aid to digestion. Also used as a hair rinse for lightening hair colour. * Mineral accumulator.

 

Chives – Garlic

Perennial closely related to common Chives but with a mild garlic, rather than onion flavour. The blossom is a flat headed spray of star-shaped flowers that faintly smell of roses, so if grown indoors on a sunny windowsill they perfume your kitchen and can be as pretty as any flowering houseplant. The wide leaves are flat, solid, and dark green. The plant grows into a clump, instead of a single bulb, and forms many tubers on a horizontal rootstock. Chinese herbalists recommend this species of Allium for the treatment of various ailments.*  Companion plant for roses, carrots, beet, and apple trees. Do not grow near legumes.  Mineral accumulator.

 

Chicory – Giant Chioggia

Italian Heirloom. Fantastic, year round, upright growth which grazing animals, including cows, deer, sheep, pigs, and even pet chooks and rabbits find highly palatable. It is not only nutritious it is very beneficial for them.*  Leaves and flowers are also edible for people, roots can be made into coffee substitute, digestive herb. Mineral accumulator.

 

Comfrey – Symphytum officinale

A herbaceous perennial with deep tap roots which act as mineral accumulators, bringing up minerals from the ground which can then be utilised by using the leaves in compost teas, in the compost or directly on the garden. The plant is sterile so cannot spread by seed. It is often used as animal fodder (there are conflicting opinions on this) and has excellent medicinal properties.

The plant can also form a dense ground cover up to 1 m tall over the warmer months, which suppresses other weeds including Kikuyu grass. It is often used as a barrier plant around garden areas or as a support plant under fruit trees.

 

Dwarf Comfrey – Symphytum grandiflorum

Perennial, evergreen herb growing up to 30-45 cm tall.  It can form an extensive ground cover by rhizomes, so only plant it where you really want it!  Suitable for understory plantings eg. Fruit trees, large berry bushes or food forest.  It is a mineral accumulating, shade tolerant ground cover.  Can also be used to make liquid fertilisers.

 

Dill 

Popular culinary herb with classic flavour. Abundant foliage on strong stems, slow to bolt. Sow every 3-4 weeks for continuous harvest through the seasons. *

 

Echinacea

Large, rich Carmine-Red 8cm or larger across flowers shaped like Sunflowers during late summer and early autumn. An excellent cut flower, lasting well in water. Commonly known as Echinacea and when used medicinally, increases bodily resistance to infection, and acts as a blood purifier in the treatment of diseases caused by impurities. *

 

Fennel

A hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.  A highly aromatic and flavorful herb used in cooking. Florence fennel is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Mineral accumulator.

 

Feverfew – Tanacetum parthenium,

A flowering plant in the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is a traditional medicinal herb that is used commonly to prevent migraine headaches. A herbaceous perennial that grows into a small bush, up to 70 cm high, with pungently-scented leaves and small white flowers. It prefers full sun and can be cut back to the ground in Autumn.

 

Land Cress – Barbarea verna

Also known as Upland Cress this relation of watercress grows in cool damp soil.  Its rosettes of dark green glossy leaves are peppery to the taste and delicious in sandwiches and salads, or can be steamed or used in soups. An annual it is very slow to bolt and if left to seed is a handy self-sowing vegetable.

Height 20cm.

 

Lovage

Known on the European Continent as the Maggi plant as the flavour is reminiscent of the famous yeast extract and in fact can be used in the same way. Use the excellent celery-flavoured leaves either dry or cooked in soups, sauces, stews, and casseroles. Fresh leaves are chopped into salads, meat and fish dishes. Use leaves moderately because of strong flavour. Plant dies back in winter but will reappear in spring.*

 

Mint – Garden mint

Fast growing ground cover, prefers cool moist spots in partial shade. Better kept contained due to spreading nature. Leaves have many edible uses. Also used for Essential oils.

 

Peppermint – Mentha x piperita

A perennial spreading herb, for moist areas, with dark green leaves and reddish stems. The leaves have a sharp, spicy taste hot at first but at the same time cooling, they can be used to flavour desserts, drinks, teas, sauces, salads, liqueurs and some vegetables.

An infusion of the leaves is said to help relieve indigestion and flatulence, relaxes muscles in the digestive tract and stimulates bile flow. Reduces nausea. Improves concentration and helps kill bacteria, parasites and viruses in the stomach. It can also bring relief to headaches. Promotes sweating in fever and flu, clears nasal congestion.

 

Mint – Eau de Cologne Mint

Low growing perennial with an erect growth habit. It reaches up to 30-45 cm high and spreads up to 1 meter. The smooth oval leaves are green, but the serrated leaf edges are often tinged with bronze or purple. The lemon-like perfume or aroma is strong and quite sharply intense. It is considered one of the most fragrant of all the mints and was originally used to create the fragrance for Eau de Cologne, hence the name . The lilac flowers appear from mid to late summer and may continue through to autumn.

 

Oregano

Often referred to as Common Marjoram or Wild Marjoram. The leaves both dried and fresh are used for fish, cheese, tomatoes, soups and most meat dishes and especially pizza. A spreading plant good for ground cover.*

 

Parsley

Italian Plain Leaf Parsley with bright green leaves, an aromatic flavour and a vigorous bushy habit. The tall young stems also show tolerance to downy mildew. Great for growing in pots or in the herb and salad patch.* Mineral accumulator.

 

Russian tarragon

The leaves are used to flavour salads, meat, fish, chicken and egg dishes. This form of Tarragon is inferior to French Tarragon in flavour but has the advantage that is can be propagated from seed.*

 

Sage

Leaves are used with onions for poultry stuffing and for flavouring rich meats like pork or duck. Can also be used as a gargle for a sore throat. Use leaves sparingly because of strong flavour. Plants grow best in sandy, well drained soil and in full sun.*

 

Stinging Nettle – Urtica urens

Also known as Dwarf nettle it is a herbaceous annual which prefers moist soil. Rich in vitamins A and C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. While it has a reputation for having an irritating sting rubbing dirt on irritated area generally removes the sting.  Soaking stinging nettles in water or cooking removes the stinging chemicals from the plant, which allows them to be handled and eaten without injury. After the stinging nettle enters its flowering and seed-setting stages, the leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths, which can irritate the urinary tract.  In its peak season, nettle contains up to 25% protein, dry weight, which is high for a leafy green vegetable. The leaves are also dried and may then be used to make a herbal tea, as can also be done with the nettle’s flowers.

Tansy

Aromatic herb used since the Middle Ages as an insect repellent. It is used to expel worms in animals (including humans), repel fleas and bed bugs and to delouse parasites on horses and dogs. Dried, it will also repel moths and ants in stored goods. It has green fern like leaves with attractive heads of yellow button flowers. A creeping root-stock habit makes it easy to divide in autumn or spring.* Mineral accumulator, compost material, companion plant.

 

Thyme English Winter – Thymus vulgaris

German Thyme / Winter Thyme. This variety has dark green broad leaves and is a basic ingredient of bouquet garni. Thyme leaves and stems are indispensable in flavouring soups, stews, sauces, stuffing or in beef, pork, lamb or chicken dishes. An essential in any herb garden.

 

Thyme Pizza – Thymus nummularius

A culinary herb used to flavour italian and greek dishes, height up to 30cm with nice compact growth and great flavour

 

Lemon Thyme – Thymus citriodorus

A lemon-scented evergreen mat-forming perennial, which is drought-tolerant once established. The leaves are eaten raw in salads or used as a fresh or dried flavoring herb in cooking and for herbal teas. It is also used for essential oil and medicinally as an antiseptic, respiratory aid etc

 

Valerian – Valeriana officinalis

Valerian produces, from a basal clump of feathery foliage, hollow flower stems with high bearing flat topped clusters of tiny pale pink fragrant flowers that smell rather like heliotrope all summer. The strong smelling root when disturbed is attractive to cats, like Catnip. Medicinally Valerian is grown for its roots, which are dried and used for teas and tonics and was popular in Victorian times as a sleeping draught. Note: This variety should not be confused with the False Valerian or Red Spur Valerian, Latin name Centranthus rubra.al*  Harvest roots before flowering for medicinal use. Mineral accumulator.

 

Vervain – Verbena officinalis

A hardy herb which likes a well drained sunny position, the aerial parts are harvested in summer when the plant is in flower to make medicinal tinctures and infusions.

 

 

*Description from Kings Seeds.

Food, Fodder & Forage – Off Grid Homestead

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