As the days start to grow longer, the chooks egg production also starts to pick up. Soon we have more eggs each day than we can eat. Lime water is a traditional and affordable way to store your surplus eggs for when the chooks go off the lay again. All you need is Hydrated Lime, water, a food grade container (preferably with a lid) and of course lots of eggs.
Hydrated Lime (calcium hydroxide) is also know as Pickling Lime or Slacked Lime, it is a natural product and available in large bags from farm supply stores.
Water should be room temp and (if from a town supply) filtered.
A food grade container can be anything which has a large enough opening to gently lower the eggs into, from large jars to a large bucket with a lid. While the jars look good on the shelf, we find a 10 to 15 litre food grade bucket is more practical and convenient.
Eggs need to be clean and unwashed so they still have the protective coating (bloom) on the shell, for this reason bought egg are not suitable. Also make sure there are no cracks in the shells and that the chooks have adequate calcium in their diet for good strong shells.
The ratio of lime to water is about 30g to 1 litre (1oz to 1 quart) we just use a 1/3 cup of lime per litre of water, which is a slightly higher ratio but easy to measure out.
Measure the water into the container and stir in correct amount of lime. If you roughly half full the container you can top up with more lime and water mix if needed. The lime will settle, this is fine, but if topping up make sure the lime is well mixed in the new water before adding.
Gently lower the eggs into the water and position across the base of the container. If you can, try to place the eggs pointy side down as this means the air pocket inside the egg has less contact with the egg white. Some people claim this produces a better stored egg but others feel it is not necessary so don’t fuss too much.
Fresh eggs can be added as you get them, just make sure the eggs remain covered with the lime water. Once the container is full it can be stored in a cool place, out of direct sunlight. Just be aware to keep it away from extremes in temperature, like high heat or freezing.
Generally most people will just need to store the eggs to cover the cooler months while their chooks are off the lay, but eggs can last 2 years or more if stored correctly.
To use the eggs remove the amount you need and wash the lime water off the shells. You can use the float test for freshness while washing the eggs (if it sinks its good, if it floats discard). We break each egg into a bowl first and check before using, but have not had a bad egg yet.
We find the eggs are just as good as fresh for most purposes. But as the time of storage extends some people prefer to just use the eggs in baking etc as they say they taste a little different. This would be something you would need to trial yourself and see if you can taste a difference.
NOTE. I saw this advice which I haven’t tried yet. “If you are going to hard boil the water glassed eggs, first do a pin prick through the shell. After sitting in the lime water solution, the egg shells are no longer porous, and will quickly pop when you start to boil or steam the eggs.”
This recipe is a great way to use up a surplus of eggs and it can be kept in the fridge for a few days for quick healthy lunches or snacks. The measurements are rough as we generally just throw it together with whatever veges we have in the garden. You can add more or less veges depending on your tastes.
1 cup of cream or milk (we like cream)
1 tsp salt
1 cup grated cheese
Handful of chopped chives or parsley
1 onion diced
Garlic to taste
1 cup approx Bacon or ham
25g of butter or more if needed
About 4 cups of assorted veges (see below)
Beat eggs, cream/milk, salt and pepper together in a large bowl.
Stir in cheese and herbs then set aside.
Cook the bacon till browned in a large frying pan with a bit of the butter, remove and cool a bit before slicing into small pieces.
Add onions to the bacon fat and cook until softened, add more butter if needed and the garlic when onion is nearly done. Any veges which need sauteing can be added to the pan with extra butter if needed.
Mix bacon, onions and veges into the egg mixture and pour into a buttered dish. We use a deep sided one about 30cm x 20cm.
Cook at 180°C for about ½ hour or until risen, browned and set in the middle.
Can be served hot, cold or even sliced and refried.
Leeks fried in bacon fat and butter are great in this dish
Cooked potato, kumara, pumpkin etc
Finely sliced greens – silverbeet, spinach, kale, etc can be sautéed first or added fresh.
Broccoli and cauliflower chopped small and can be sautéed first or added fresh.
Root veges (especially carrot) finely chopped or grated are best sautéed first
Sliced tomatoes make a nice addition laid on top of the frittata before cooking.
The egg mixture can be a base for any combinations you like.
Sliced olives, diced tomato, spinach and feta.
Broccoli, cauliflower and extra cheese.
Sliced sausage or dry fried seasoned mince for a meatlovers.
Its finally harvest time and the pines are coming down! It’s only been ten months since they first said the harvest would happen, October was the first date, then late November, oh definitely before Christmas… between Christmas and New Year’s the gear will be there, oh sorry the harvester decided to have a holiday. Definitely by March. No, the harvester said he wasn’t going to take his gear down THAT road, pulled out last minute… Definitely this winter, it’s a flattish block we can get it done over winter; besides they won’t have work elsewhere over winter… Mid July comes and another phone call to the forestry man, ‘a harvester has just been up there yesterday for a look, I have two harvesters who are interested, will get back to you Monday’ later that week (not Monday) the phone rings ‘they start next week’ still doesn’t feel real until the actual harvester calls… FINALLY!!!
Then it’s all go, the transporter turns up with the harvesting machine, he has to stop and unload it at a bridge down the road, then back on the transporter. Another unload at our cliffs and we hear the machine rattling down the road, then back on to cross the little bridge (council requirements) and off again on our side to avoid low branches. It’s a relief to see the big machine rumble past our house to the large pine paddock. The transporter has to carry on about another 3kms to the end of the road to turn around on our narrow gravel road. That in its self has been a mission as the Honey farm at the end of the road has put padlocked gates across the narrow gravel public road at the only turn area… But a last-minute rush around finds the farmer who grazes it (out loading a stock truck himself) and we get the code for the padlock.
The harvesting machine roars into action clearing a skid site, the loader is not due till the next day. But it soon grinds to a halt as on the first day there is a breakdown, then another issue on the second. The harvester in charge here, tells us this is their back up machine and its due for retirement. The job is hard on the old machine and the following week its busts a track which takes two days to repair. But when the gear is working the boys plow through the trees and logs stack up, along with the mess…
We are looking at the mud and debris in our poor paddock and contemplating our plan of attack for the cleanup and then restoration. Some of the neighbours pines were harvested 2 years ago, harvesting was stopped due to the price dropping and it would have cost him to continue having them harvested. Nothing was done to remediate the steep hill paddock; debris still litter it and several large piles of slash are on the flats below. But when we moved here a year ago there was already a grass covering and of course the opportunistic foxglove and thistles, with blackberry clambering over the pine debris. Another year later and the cattle have heavily grazed the hillside periodically, the blackberry has spread quite a bit but the paddock has held a reasonable if somewhat sparse pasture over winter. But the pasture growth is slow here in winter anyway.
The farmer who grazes this block tells us that his pines were harvested prior to this lot. He went down the spray and reseed route and says that his ex-pine paddocks have recovered to pasture much better than the block opposite us. Due to the steepness of the hills, I would think that heavy machinery was not used on the hills themselves but just on the flatter areas below, these areas were not planted in pine. You can however see the impact of the machinery on these areas, with much track rutted ground evident even after two years of cattle grazing. There did appear to be a high presence of clover and lotus in these areas over summer with the untouched areas (the old yards etc.) retaining a mixed pasture of grasses, lotus, clover etc.
A couple of important factors to note here is that the hills/soils are primarily pumice with a small amount of top soil and there is copious ground water, with many springs evident on the hill sides, resulting in ponding and boggy ground on the flatter areas. Most of the soils are based on sedimentary mudstones and siltstones, but there are ‘outwash’ terraces of Taupo ash along the deep river gorges. It is on one or these terraces that our plantation stands, or stood…
Something that we and our neighbours have observed is that on these pumice slopes the radiata pines develop a small root system which it seems is barely able to support the size of the tree above. We also have a high annual rainfall, being near the Whanganui National Park in the central North Island. The combination of sodden earth and winds means many of these harvest size pines are being lost to uprooting and once one goes on a steep slope it creates a domino effect. Walking through these hill side forests is severely hampered in places by the large trees stacked like pick up sticks. The tracks on our neighbours pine plantation are largely impassable now. He, like us, cannot wait for the blasted trees to go and will not be replanting in radiata. He told us that he feels radiata was highly mis-represented in the 90’s with forecasted returns over inflated. While no one has a crystal ball to see into the future, a basic knowledge of ‘right plant, right place’ should have been applied when recommending forest species for areas.
Another factor is the remoteness of our location and the excessive cost of the transport alone to get the trees out. And then there’s the size of our plantation, at only 3.5 to 4 hectares, it’s a long way to bring in the transporters with the gear for only a few weeks work. I have heard a logger’s opinion of these small blocks “often they are shitty awkward blocks that someone thought it would be a good idea to plant in the 90’s” “they are not really profitable anymore so most companies won’t touch them unless they are specialised woodlots.” Another farmer had small areas of mature pines scattered across his farm, often in these ‘awkward’ places like steep ridgelines or gullies. He was of the opinion that it would not be worth it financially to harvest them by the time access to each area was factored in. Surely these issues would have been known when these blocks were planted and yet planted in radiata they were…
So here we are with our small radiata pine plantation in a remote location with awkward gorge edges, surveying the carnage left behind. But also, grateful that this crew took the job on, because for us and the land to move forward the pines need to go. Harvesting trees in this manner can only be called devastating for the land. If trees fell en-masse during a natural event it would make the news, but forestry does it as a matter of course. It might not feel so bad if we knew these trees were going to build or repair homes for New Zealanders, but the reality is most of our resources are being shipped out to other countries. So, we rape and pillage our landscape for other country’s needs, because that’s what it looks like from where we are standing. You might say we get paid for the destruction, but when I look at the small percentage that the land owner gets from it, it is not worth the devastation. Not only that, but for the small block owner who is not going to continue the ground destroying process by replanting in radiata, the costs start to mount up. The slash needs to dealt with, possibly stumps removed, the ground needs deep ruts from the machinery filled in or smoothed out. Fences need rebuilding and replanting must be done whether it be pasture, natives or anything else. If you are paying someone to do this then that’s most of your money gone.
For us there is no paying someone else, there is only us and the loan of a neighbours tractor. This is daunting and we have spent many hours contemplating the best way to do it. Getting the logging crew to rake up the debris into piles is a common method. But we see the piles opposite us, full not only of slash but of precious top soil too. We feel the soil has been through enough and we will probably just slog through the paddocks bit by bit. Clear one large area, remove any firewood, burn what’s left, spread the ash, reshape and level where necessary and then reseed. For now, we will most likely just use untreated ‘Bush burn’ seed, its cheap and reasonably fast to establish. This will give us a grazable cover and hopefully prevent too much soil loss in our high rainfall climate. Other plants can come later as we have the time, beneficial trees being high on that list. We are thankful to the crew though, we asked if they could do their best to spare a couple of mature tulip trees, an oak and our lombardy poplar, which gives us tawaka mushrooms. There was one near miss where a pine fell between two of them, but they are all still standing with only minimal damage, the funny thing is where once they stood out against the backdrop of pines, now they appear small and lost in the flattened paddock.
It is night as I write this and the wind has picked up, I hear it howling around the house and there is a whooshing in the remaining trees like a stormy sea in the distance. Today one of the crew cut through the middle of the last of the paddocks. I hear a crack and a thump as a pine, who has lost the support of his fellows, succumbs to the wind…
Well just over a week has passed since I wrote the words above, we thought the main paddock would have been finished last week but tomorrow they will load the last of the logs from there. The morning after I wrote this, we went for a walk to see what had happened with the wind, and found a pine leaning across the creek and against our old man pines, its roots torn from the ground by the wind. Thankfully they got in there and pulled it out, then we cut yet another fence so they could remove some of the old man pines from our pond paddock. These trees are starting to drop limbs and have become a worry since they are now exposed to the full onslaught of the wind, so we thought it better to remove them while we had the chance. There are some native trees planted around them which have survived the harvesting so these can fill the space instead.
Another event which has happened is the discovery of a powerline running through the pines. No one knew it was there and now it is not there! Snapped in two it was twisted around the top of a pine and sagging low across the valley. The lines company was notified and turns out they thought it had been lifted it out of the trees just months prior while replacing a power pole… Hmm.
Satellite images show that it had been burning our tree tops, which they would have seen from the helicopter inspections earlier this year. First time we had heard anything of it, but probably explains the power issues the honey farm has been having. I spoke to the linesman who came out to inspect and he said it was a 20,000-volt cable and would have been burning the trees each time it made contact. Scary. A piece of the line now lies tangled around pine debris in our paddock.
I watched from afar as they cut the pines from the edge our gorge, as each one crashed down the sadness grew. I may not be a fan of radiata pines but they are still trees which have been growing on this land for 25 years. Then in just three weeks the forest has been turned to debris and mud. How long will it take to regenerate?
It has taken about a day to ‘tidy’ the debris from the old man pines in the corner of the pond paddock, about 1/8 of an acre. That would mean about 20 days’ work to clear a hectare… 3 months to clear the lot… but it is exhausting work, not only because it is highly physical, but also because of the type of work. The fact that it is all about clearing the carnage, the damage that we have chosen to inflict on our land because someone many years ago made a choice which was the wrong one for this landscape. Yes, it will be remediated, yes it will one day be beautiful and healthy. But right now, as you drag yet another branch out of the tangle, you turn around and see more tangles of branches stretching out across the paddock. You see mud and tracks a metre deep, soil both churned and compacted. Barely a blade of grass is left, of the four trees which the harvesters had previously spared only two now stand and one of those has logs stacked against it…
In many countries fruits and vegetables which are able to be stored long term were put in root cellars. These were sometimes located under the house and may have incorporated the cool larder, but in their most basic form they were dug out pits with an earth bermed roof away from the house or the more basic ‘clamp’ (roots crops stored on the ground with straw or bracken and covered with soil). Root cellars utilised the natural cooling, insulation and humidity of the earth to keep crops from freezing over winter and reduce spoilage in summer. As most areas of New Zealand are able to grow root crops and hold them in the ground all through winter, root cellars are not really used here. However, earth bermed pits were used by Māori for storing kumara (rua kūmara) as they will rot if left in the wet cold ground.
Usually these fruit and vegetables (below) are only being stored over the cooler months, which means they can be stored in a suitable shed or under the house, in an unheated room, even on a veranda or back porch as long as humidity can be loosely managed and they are (mostly) kept in the dark. Air flow is important in most cases to prevent a build-up of moisture which can cause rotting and to reduce build ups of ethylene gas (a natural ripening gas emitted by apples and other fruits and vegetables like onions and garlic etc) The use of untreated wood for shelving and boxes or bins has the added benefits of natural antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Having a dirt or gravel floor in your outdoor storage spaces helps to regulate humidity levels and can provide good drainage. If your main storage space is outside of the house consider using a cool cupboard inside and restock it occasionally from the outside stores. This means when the weather gets stormy or you are busy there is a food store close at hand.
Conditions for storing depend on the produce but they are mostly divided into those which need high humidity (as in root cellars or cool sheds) and those which need low humidity (like in a pantry). Choose only undamaged fruit or vegetables for long term storage.
High Humidity crops
For maximum apple storage life, make sure that you harvest the apples when they are mature, but not fully ripe. That is because apples will continue to ripen while in storage, so ripe or overripe apples will quickly become soft and floury. As they ripen apples give of ethylene gas, this gas speeds up the ripening process of apples and any other fruit or vege around them so ventilation is important. Apples store well at low temperatures, 4°C is a pretty good temp for most apples. Above this and they will ripen faster, below and some varieties can suffer chill damage. Humidity should be at 90 to 95% but as this can be hard to maintain wrapping the apples in newspaper can help retain moisture. Then layer the apples in crates, boxes or even drawers, preferably in a way in which you can easily check for rot, cardboard between the layers can help with this. Apples stored this way can last 2 to 7 months depending on the variety, tart crisp apples generally store longer.
Pears can be stored much the same as apples, the European pears such as ‘Bartlet’ ‘Packham’ ‘Beurre Bosc’ and ‘Winter Nelis’ should be picked firm and slightly under ripe. Stored like apples they should last 1 to 3 months. Remove from cold storage about a week before eating so they can finish ripening.
Asian pears or Nashi however should be left on the tree until their colour changes and they are sweet, crunchy and juicy. Store as above for 1 to 3 months.
Most other fruits (stone fruit, berries etc) have short fresh storage periods and are best bottled, dried or frozen to preserve the harvest.
Late crop Potatoes are the ones which you store for use through winter and are dug once the plants die back. There are a few ideas on what to do with potatoes once dug, some say leave them in the sun for about a day and a half to allow the skins to cure. Others say to cure in a dark place for 10 to 14 days at about 7 to 15°C. Once cured potatoes can be stored in a cool dark airy place for 4 to 6 months or more depending on the variety. Keep the potatoes separate from apples and other fruit or veges, like onions and garlic, which produce ethylene, a ripening gas, as it can cause the potatoes to sprout early. If storing in sacks, hessian or paper is best as it allows the potatoes to ‘breathe’, otherwise crates or boxes can be used, and layers of paper, sacking, straw or bracken etc can be used to cover to keep out the light. The bracken or straw is also thought to absorb some of the ethylene gas and therefore prolong storage time. Sprinkling lime on each layer of potatoes is thought to prevent mold and rotting and also stop the potatoes from sprouting.
Carrots, beets and parsnips
It most places these root vegetables will store well in the ground and you can spread a thick layer of straw over the top of them if you are in an area with very low temperatures where the ground freezes. If you would rather store inside, or need the space in the garden these crops can be layered in damp sand, saw dust, peat or moss. For carrots and parsnips remove all the green leaves and stems, for beets cut back the stems to about 2 to 5 cm, try and keep the beets roots intact. Make sure they are not touching each other in the layers.
Carrots should last 4 to 6 months, beets 3 to 5 months and parsnips 1 to 2 months.
Turnips, radish (black spanish, daikon etc) and swedes can be stored the same way but it is often recommended they are stored outside due to their strong smell.
We choose to keep most of our roots crops in the ground, the carrot tops can look a bit ratty but the carrots are good, beetroot, turnips, parsnips and radish just keep on growing. The photos below show some of our mid winter crops.
Cabbages can be dug up, leaving the stem and roots intact, remove any ratty leaves so there is just a firm head. These can then be hung upside down, put in bins or individually wrapped and put on a shelf. Unless your storage room is very airy in is a good idea to store them away from other foods like apples as their smell can taint other produce. Red cabbages and late crop cabbages are ment to store better, lasting 3 to 4 months or more.
Low Humidity Crops (Dry Storage)
When the tops start droop, bend them all over and leave for a couple more days, then the onions are ready to be pulled. Once harvested onions need to be dried before storing, this can be done by leaving them on the ground for a couple of days if the weather is good. Or by spreading them single layer on a rack or the floor in a protected area. Its needs to be warm, dry and breezy so that the skins and neck of the onion dry. Turning occasionally can help speed up the process. Once fully dry trim the roots and necks (if not hanging them), put aside to use first any which are damaged or with green necks. The rest can be stored by hanging in ‘strings’, or in onion sacks, baskets or boxes as long as the air can circulate around the onions. Pungent thick-skinned onions store better than the thin-skinned sweet onions, so choose a variety like Pukekohe Longkeeper for long term storage. Onions should store for 5 to 8 months.
We harvest the garlic when the leaves are 50/50 dry/green, check a couple of bulbs and if they are a good size harvest before the cloves start to separate. Brush off any loose dirt and spread out to dry in a shady dry airy place, turning occasionally, or after a couple of days tie in loose bundles and hang till fully dry. Once dry the garlic can be plaited or trimmed and stored in baskets or boxes. Garlic can be easily stored for 5 to 8 months, but should last a year or until you harvest the next seasons crop, though it may start to deteriorate. If you see cloves starting to sprout or wrinkle use these ones first and remove any which are breaking down.
Harvest pumpkins after the plants have died down but before the first frosts. Leave the stalk on, we generally cut them where they meet the vine. If the stalk breaks off use these ones first as they will not store well. Wipe of any dirt and if the weather is good leave them outside to cure, this hardens the skin, heals any wounds from harvesting and lets them ripen and develop more flavour. If the weather is not good put them in a warm spot for up to 2 weeks. Once cured move to a cool dry place and store on wooden shelves, an old wire-wove bed base, cardboard or hang in nets. Pumpkins be stored for at least three to six months. Choose varieties which are especially for long storage such as the tough skinned ‘Ironbark’ pumpkins like Triamble, Queensland blue and Marina di Chioggia
Squash, Kamokamo and even mature marrows can be stored this way too.
Only store undamaged kumara and once dug spread them out in a cool airy place to let the skins cure for a week or so. It is better not to wash them as you want the skins to stay dry once harvested. Then move to a dry dark place, kumara can be layered in boxes with paper, straw, hay, sawdust, silver fern or bracken fronds between the layers or wrap each one individually in paper. Dampness must be avoided or they will rot. If stored right they should last 4 to 6 months, try to avoid really low temperatures, 12 to 18 °C is preferable.
Yams can be stored at room temperature for several months. For longer storage choose the best tubers and store in dry sand, sawdust, or in between layers of bracken or hay etc in a cool dark place. Yams can be stored for about 5 to 6 months or more.
Fiona Sutherland’s Root cellar.
This is an example of a root cellar in Wairarapa, New Zealand, made from a concrete tank. Fiona explains how they have made it…
“Essentially it is a concrete tank 1800mm high x 1600mm wide, with some tweaks buried into a bank and then topped up. We aimed for 3m underground. It has two vents, one pipe to the bottom for air in and one at the top for air out.
There are 6 x 100mm wide holes in the bottom so as to have a connection with the earth, supposed to produce a better outcome so they say. A refrigerated door to keep it cool.
So far, we are tracking well at 95% humidity and 6C, it takes time for the concrete to cool down so we are sure we will get down to 4C. The timber shelving is being made.”
For more food storage ideas check out our other articles…